The Mediterranean (MED) diet is often considered health-promoting due to its high content of Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids and polyphenols.
These compounds can affect gene expression and may regulate proteins related to cardiovascular disease prevention. This study aimed to identify the effects of a MED-type diet. Also it wanted to see how would the replacement of SFA(Saturated Fatty Acids) with MUFA in a Western-type diet work.
An 8-week, completely controlled SFA diet , MUFA diet, or a MED diet was allocated to overweight men and women (waist: women 80 cm, men 94 cm).
Consumption of the MUFA and MED diets, compared with the SFA diet, decreased the expression of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes and plasma connective tissue growth factor. Compared with the MED and SFA diets, the MUFA diet changed the expression of genes involved in B-cell receptor and endocytosis signaling. Participants who consumed the MED diet had lower concentrations of proteins promoting inflammation.
The replacement of SFA with MUFA may improve health, thereby reducing metabolic stress and OXPHOS activity. The MED diet may have more antiatherogenic effects by lowering proinflammatory plasma proteins.

In order to see more detailed data and the results of the scientific research, consults the article “Consumption of a High Monounsaturated Fat Diet Reduces Oxidative Phosphorylation Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Abdominally Overweight Men and Women” written by Susan J. van Dijk, Edith J. M. Feskens, Marieke B. Bos, Lisette C. P. G. M. de Groot, Jeanne H. M. de Vries, Michael Muller, and Lydia A. Afman.